Monetary Intermediation Cost Background
The Bank of Japan (BOJ)
controls the money stock of the Japanese Yen (¥) and supplies liquidity to a group of banks based on a fractional reserve deposit banking system. This site has analyzed
the BOJ and determined that its monetary intermediation cost is 98.7%
inefficient (1 - deposit reserve requirement) and on the order of 4¼%
of GDP per year that could be more efficiently handled by a full reserve credit banking system, development of depositor owned institutions to exclusively hold demand deposits and direct issuance of new money creation, known as Seigniorage, to the Japanese people based on a GDP index monetary standard.
The analysis below will show that the fractional reserve deposit banking system currently in use has been confounded with true credit intermediation resulting in unearned wealth transfer to the fractional reserve lending source and that there would be no monetary or credit intermediation loss with conversion to a full reserve system, reducing and/or eliminating the current wealth transfer disparity caused by the fractional reserve system.
It is believed that with the discovery
of the Modigliani-Miller Financial Theorem in 1958 of the irrelevance of
capital structure that proof of the superiority of the full reserve monetary
system has existed because of its lower monetary intermediation cost.
CHART 1 DATA SOURCE:
Fractional Reserve Monetary Intermediation Cost Impact Chart. The chart above shows
the impact of fractional reserve monetary intermediation unearned wealth transfer.
CHART 2 DATA SOURCE: Chart data extrapolated from sample loan using BOJ 1.3% reserve requirement to 100% full reserve requirement. Increasing return to fractional reserve credit intermediation as reserve requirement reduced comes from Capital (Tractor) and Labor (Farmer) since it is known from M&M Theorem that leverage does not change system value the increased financial intermediary return as reserve requirement reduced must come from other parts of the system to keep the same value.
CHART 3 DATA SOURCE:
Business Cycle with Leverage and Intermediation Added using Excel Sine
Wave Graph. The chart above shows the impact of fractional reserve leverage,
which adds risk to the Japanese economic system in the form of increased variability
of returns but does not change total returns to the system, shown above as
increased amplitudes of the business cycle. The compounding monetary
intermediation cost of the Bank of Japan is also shown gradually increasing
in size that is actually a reduction to system returns.
CHART 4 DATA SOURCE:
Business cycle with compounding monetary intermediation cost added using Excel
Sine wave on negative parabola graph. The chart above shows the impact of
the compounding monetary debt intermediation cost, which mis-allocates
system resources to the money creation source and reduces economic growth at a progressively faster
rate as the monetary debt compounds.
A banking business model based on
full reserve financial intermediation, time matched funding spread lending,
is not a new concept. It has had historical support from at least five
previous Nobel Prize winners, Milton Friedman, 1976,
James Tobin, 1981,
Maurice Allais, 1988,
Merton Miller, 1990 and
Frederick Soddy, 1921, a former
Secretary of Agriculture and Vice President of the United States,
distinguished economists and financial writers including
one of the foremost economists of the first half of the 20th Century.
Bank of Japan Monetary Intermediation Cost
Bank of Japan Summary/Abstract (Paper Download)
The attached Bank of Japan Monetary Intermediation Cost paper puts forth the proposition that the monetary intermediation cost of the BOJ is at least 98.7% inefficient (1 - deposit reserve requirement) and is on the order of 4¼% of GDP per year, compounded to 60% since the 1995, that could be more efficiently handled by a full reserve credit banking system, development of 100% depositor owned institutions to exclusively hold demand deposits and direct issuance of new money creation, known as Seigniorage, to the Japanese people based on a GDP index monetary standard. Conversion to a full reserve monetary system is expected to improve the Japanese economy by the amount of the reduced monetary intermediation cost, on the order of 4¼% of GDP per year, improve the balance sheet of the Japanese government on the order of ¥1,091.3 trillion as of fiscal year 2016 and restore on the order of seven to eight million or more jobs as shown below.
CHART 5 DATA SOURCE: BOJ Annual Monetary Intermediation Cost to Economy 1995 to 2016, Attachment 4. The chart above shows the annual monetary
intermediation cost of the BOJ to the Japanese economy that could be saved by
replacing the BOJ fractional reserve system with a full reserve system.
CHART 6 DATA SOURCE: Direct Issuance (Seigniorage) Monetary Intermediation, Attachment 10. The chart above shows the impact of the BOJ creating debt based money for its first use and control faster than economic growth, transferring
wealth from the other sectors of the economy to the banking/financial sector by virtue of its first use and control of the new money.
CHART 7 DATA SOURCE: Direct Issuance (Seigniorage) Monetary Intermediation, Attachment 10. The chart above shows the impact of the BOJ creating debt based money for its first use and control as a percentage of the M1 Money Stock faster than economic growth, transferring wealth from the other sectors of the economy to the banking/financial sector by virtue of its first use and control of the new money.
TABLE 1 DATA SOURCE: Bank of Japan Monetary Intermediation Cost Impact on Economy and Jobs, Attachment 9. The chart above shows the expected impact of conversion to a full reserve monetary
system for the Japanese economy.
The complete PDF paper can be viewed
and/or downloaded from the link below:
Bank of Japan Monetary Intermediation Cost. The version posted was last modified
June 28, 2018.
Google翻訳を使用して日本語にPDF論文を翻訳します。(Adobe Acrobat Required)
About the Author William Haugen
I have a Masters degree in Finance
from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA in 1983 and a Bachelors
degree in Business from the University of Washington, Seattle, WA in 1981.
I live in Dallas, Texas. If you have comments or suggestions, please email me at